ambuscade n : the act of concealing yourself and lying in wait to attack by surprise [syn: ambush, lying in wait, trap] v : wait in hiding to attack [syn: ambush, scupper, bushwhack, waylay, lurk, lie in wait]
Etymologyembuscade, from Italian imboscata, or Spanish emboscada, from emboscar to ambush, from imboscare.
- Rhymes: -eɪd
- A lying in a wait, concealed, for the purpose of attacking an enemy by surprise; a snare laid for an enemy; an ambush.
- To lie in wait for, or to attack from a covert or lurking place; to waylay.
An ambush is a long established military tactic in which an ambushing force uses concealment to attack an enemy that passes its position. Ambushers strike from concealed positions such as among dense underbrush or behind hilltops. Ambushes have been used consistently throughout history, from ancient to modern warfare. An ambush predator is an animal who uses similar tactics to capture prey without the difficulty and wasted energy of a chase.
ProcedureIn modern warfare, an ambush is most often employed by ground troops up to platoon size against enemy targets which may be other ground troops or possibly vehicles. However in some situations especially ones deep behind enemy lines, although the actual attack will be carried out by a platoon, a company-sized unit will be deployed to support the attack group, setting up and maintaining a forward patrol harbour from which the attacking force will deploy and to which they will retire after the attack. During ancient warfare, an ambush often might involve thousands of soldiers on a large scale, such as over a mountain pass.
PlanningAmbushes are complex multi-phase operations and are therefore usually planned in some detail. First a suitable “killing zone” is identified. This is the place where the ambush will be laid. It is generally a place where enemy units are expected to pass, and which gives reasonable cover for the deployment, execution, and extraction phases of the ambush patrol. A path along a wooded valley floor would be a stereotypical example.
Ambush can be described geometrically as:
- Linear, when a number of firing units are equally distant from the linear kill zone.
- L-shaped, when a short leg of firing units are placed to enfilade the sides of the linear kill zone
- V-shaped, when the firing units are distant from the kill zone at end that the enemy enters, so the firing units lay down band of intersecting and interlocking fire. This ambush is normally triggered only when the enemy is well into the kill zone. The intersecting bands of fire stop any attempt to move out of the kill zone.
PreparationTo be successful an ambush patrol must deploy into the area covertly, ideally under the cover of darkness. The patrol will establish secure and covert positions overlooking the killing zone. Usually, two or more “cut-off” groups will be sent out a short distance from the main ambushing group into similarly covert positions. Their job is twofold; first to give the ambush commander early warning of the approaching enemy (usually by radio or cellphone), and second, when the ambush is initiated, to prevent any enemies from escaping. Another group will cover the front and rear of the ambush position (blocking force) and thus give all round defence to the ambush patrol.
Care must be taken by the ambush commander to ensure that fire from any weapon cannot inadvertently hit any other friendly unit.
WaitingHaving set the ambush, the next phase is to wait. This could be for a few hours or a few days depending on the tactical and supply situation. It is obviously much harder for an ambush patrol to remain covert and alert if sentry rosters, shelter, sleeping, sanitary arrangements, food and water, have to be considered, so this should be done in a patrol harbour away from the site chosen for the ambush. Ambush patrols will almost always have to be self-sufficient as re-supply would not be possible without compromising their covert position.
ExecutionThe arrival of an enemy in the area should be signalled by one of the cut-off units. This may be done by radio or by some other signal, but the enemy must not detect the signal. If radio silence is necessary the pre-electronic expedient of a cord linking the groups, tugged once or twice as a signal, may be employed. The ambush commander will have given a clear instruction for initiating the ambush. This might be a burst from an automatic weapon, use of an explosive device (such as a Claymore mine or other directional weapon), or possibly a simple whistle blast. In US practice, whistles are not favored since they do nothing to inflict damage on the enemy. The ambush commander may judge when the ambush will be most effective and give the signal manually, or the ambush patrol may rely on tripwire or pressure-detonated mines in the kill zone to initiate firing.
Against vehicles, the lead and rear vehicles are the primary targets; this traps the remaining vehicles in the kill zone for as long as possible. Targets are prioritised to rapidly destroy the target's unit cohesion. It is vital to obtain fire superiority as rapidly as possible to prevent enemy counter-ambush tactics from being executed. The order of priorities against an enemy infantry unit is the enemy radio operator (in the past identified by the whip aerial of the backpack radio unit such as the British Army's Clansman system), the enemy's unit commander (a more difficult task today when officers and NCOs are dressed and armed in an identical manner to the rest of the infantry squad), and the platoon or section machine-gunner.
After the firefight has been won, the now compromised ambush patrol must leave the area as soon as it is practical to do so. In hit and run operations, especially against superior numbers and forces, the ambush force will begin disengaging even before the firefight has been won. In the past, accepted protocol was to check bodies for intelligence, take prisoners, and treat any wounded enemy. Once this was accomplished the ambush patrol would leave then exfiltrate the area by a pre-determined route.
If time has allowed, the ambush force will have prepared their exit, for example placing land mines to cover their retreat, the members of the force making and following a safe route through the mines. If possible a subsidiary ambush may be planned along the exit route to catch pursuing troops, and if available the egress may be covered by mortar or artillery fire.
Surviving an ambushBy definition, the ambush contains the element of total surprise, which means the victims of the ambush have no knowledge of how it has been constructed, or what measures may have been employed to prevent escape. Therefore—and this has been proven by the experience of war—the only likely method of survival is withdrawal from the killing zone “the way you came in.” All other routes out of the killing zone may be blocked, and in a very well-planned and well-executed ambush, even the “back door” will have been closed by the time the ambush is sprung. The military doctrines are “to attack the ambush,” but this is very likely to have been anticipated by the ones who set the ambush, and often plays into their hands. The value of withdrawal is the preservation of the force to “fight another day,” when not taken by surprise.
Avoiding The AmbushThe best way to survive an ambush is not to run in to them, in order for this to happen movement must not be predictable in timing or route, avoiding the most obvious routes. Rather than moving at a constant speed and direction, the patrol should vary these, with occasional stops to observe both the route ahead and changes behind. Units should move in such a way that they are close enough together for mutual support but far enough apart that one burst of automatic fire will not take out the entire unit. When on foot if possible the patrol should move in such a way to maximise their firepower, for example the arrowhead and spearhead formation, they should not allow themselves to be skylined. Units on foot should have a point man some way ahead of the main body and if possible a rearguard as well. Those travelling in vehicles follow the same procedures with lead and trailing vehicles ahead and behind the main body of vehicles.
Countering an ambushIn the modern day warfare, this is a lot easier than before, since a route can be sanitized beforehand by aerial assets and any obvious ambush sites noted and counter measures takes. In Afghanistan Hind gunships were used to locate concentrations of Mujahideen and then these would be attacked by the Hinds themselves or by artillery using the aircraft as spotters.
- extract from Lt Col Anthony B. Herbert's Soldiers handbook
- US Army Ranger Handbook section 5-14 for ambushes and 6-11 for reaction to ambushes
ambuscade in Guarani: Ñuhã
ambuscade in Danish: Baghold
ambuscade in German: Hinterhalt
ambuscade in Spanish: Emboscada
ambuscade in Esperanto: Embusko
ambuscade in French: Embuscade
ambuscade in Ido: Embusko
ambuscade in Italian: Imboscata
ambuscade in Hebrew: מארב
ambuscade in Lithuanian: Pasala
ambuscade in Dutch: Hinderlaag
ambuscade in Japanese: 待ち伏せ
ambuscade in Portuguese: Emboscada
ambuscade in Slovenian: Zaseda
ambuscade in Finnish: Väijytys
ambuscade in Swedish: Bakhåll